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Full text of "Foreign crops and markets"

Historic, archived document 



Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 



CROP£ AND MARKETS 




VOLUME 59 NUMBER 2 

Y 1 ALMOND PRODUCTION (Medit. Basin) 

(Page 24) 

DAIRY PRODUCTS (World Output) 
(Page 28) 

CONTENTS 

Page 

COTTON AND OTHER FIBER 
Italian Cotton Mills Reducing Operations 38 
Cotton-Price Quotations on Foreign 
Markets 40 

FATS AND OILS ^ 
U. S. Exports of Specified rats, oils 

and Oilseeds • ^3 

Italian Oilseed Production Down 33 

Uruguay Harvests Record Sunflower, 

FOR RELEASE Peanut Cro * 5 34 

FRUITS , VEGETABLES AND NUTS 
MONDAY 1949 Mediterranean Basin Almond Produc- 
MUNUAT tion Again Below Average 

JULY II. 19^9 LIVESTOCK AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS 

UULI rij Wor td Output of Dairy Products, First 

Quarter 1949 28 

TOBACCO 

New Zealand Tobacco Production and 
Consumption at Record Level ......... 3b 

Southern Rhodesia's Tobacco Production 
and Exports Treble Prewar 35 

TROPICAL PRODUCTS 
Angola's 1948 Coffee Exports at Record ^ 

Mozambique's' Tea Production and Exports ^ 
Larger 

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
OFFICE OF FOREIGN AGRICULTURAL RELATIONS 
WASHINGTON 25, D.C. 



23 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 59, No. 2 



LATE IT E W 3 



The first estimate of apple production in Canada for 1949 is placed 
at 16.6 million bushels, or 27 percent higher than the I94C crop of 
I3.3 million bushels. Production in Nova Scotia, indicated at a ,5 
million bushels, and British Columbia at 7*5 million compare with 2,2 
and 7»2 million in 1948 respectively. 



Sweden abolis hei. rat i oning o f meats in ret ail sh ops on June 20. 
Moat served in restaurants, however, had been free of rationing 
restrictions for come time. Increased supplies made it possible to 
remove c ont ro 1 s • 

It is reported that the Netherlands de-rationed butter, margarine, 
fat and edible oils June 2h» Edible fats and oils had been rationed 
in that country for almost 9 years since July 1940. 



The Uruguayan meat export quota for 1949 k- as been set at 198 



million pounds j representing an increase of 55 million pounds over 
the amount fixed in March this year. Increased numbers of livestock 
(bid good pasture conditions have made this increase possible. 

(Continued on Page 41) 



FOREIGN CROPS AND MARKETS 

Published weekly to inform producers, processors, distributors and consumers 
of farm products of current developments abroad in the crop and livestock 
industries, foreign trends in prices and consumption of farm products, and 
world agricultural trade. Circulation of this periodical is free to those 
needing the information it contains for dissemination and olher related 
activities. Issued by the Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations of the 
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C. 



July 11. 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



loJ+9 MEDITEKRAJIEAN BASEST ALMOND PRODUCTION AGAIN BELOW AVERAGE l/ 

The 19^9 preliminary forecast of shelled almond production in the 
6 leading foreign commercial producing countries is 57; 500 short tons 
compared with 54,700 tons (revised) in 19^8 ana 77,500 tons in 19^7- 
The forecast is 18 percent he low the 5 -year (19^3-%) average of 70,500 
tons and 15 percent below the 10 -year (193$ -^7), average of '67,600 tons. 

Italy , the world's largest producer of shelled almonds, again has 
a very poor crop in the- making. The production in France and French 
Morocco, "both minor producers, is also expected to he "below that of 19^8. 
In Spain, present indications point to a crop slightly above average hut 
weather damage in the important Alicante district raises some doubt 
whether the forecast will stand when harvest commences in August, The 
United States est imate is not yet available, but according to trade 
sources, it is expected to be one of the largest on record. 

Growing conditions in this group of countries :have been far from 
uniform this season. The best growing conditions are reported from Iran 
and Portugal where larger crops than last year's are now expected. In 
France, French Morocco, and the Valencia (Alicante) district of Spain 
there was considerable weather damage during blossoming. In Spain, all 
other districts report conditions having been from- good to ideal. Italy 
reports the poorest growing conditions. The, unseasonable snow and cold 
weather in the first Week of March during blossoming is reported to 
have ruined half or more of the Sicilian or op and a smaller but 
undetermined percentage in Bari. ' 

It is estimated about 23,400 short ton3 of 19^8 almonds remain un- 
sold as the 19W3-49 season closes, Italy is reported to have an estimated 
11,500 short tons; Spain 11,000 tons, and. Portugal 600 tons. The .carry- 
over represents k-3 percent of the estimated 19^8 production. At 
the same time last year the carry-over from the 19^7 crop was extimated 
at 32,000 tons (revised). At the close of the 1947-1+3 marketing season 
Italy alone had a carry-over about equal to the present carry-over for 
all 6 countries. On 'basis of present information the Mediterranean 
supply of .almonds for the 19^9-50 marketing year will be 80, 900 short 
tons compared with 86,700 tons at the start of the 1948-^9 season. The 
carry-over in Italy ar.d Spain is still largely in the hands of growers. 
In Portugal and other minor .producing countries the small carry-over 
is in the hands of the trade.. 

The season now closing from the export point of view was still a 
long ways from a normal prewar year. The official export statistics 
for these countries are still not available. On the basis of trade 
estimates about 36,000 short tons of shelled nuts appear to have found 
their way into international trade channels. Italy was the principal 
supplier, having provided an estimated 20,000 short tons, and Spain was 
second with an estimated 10,000 tons, 

l/ A more extensive statement may be obtained from the Office of Foreign 
Agricultural Relations. 



25 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 59, Ho. | 



ALMONDS, SHELLED: Estimated commercial production in specified countries, 

19^9 with comparisons 

(Rounded to nearest 100 short tons) 



United 



Year 


: France 


French 
Morocco 


: Iran 


: Italy 


1 Portugal 


: Spain 


Foreign 
total 


: States 1 
tunshelled 




: Short 
tons 


Short 
tons 


; Short 
: tons 


- Short 
tons 


Short 
tons 


Short 
tons 


Short 
tons 


Short 1 
tons 


Average 


















191*3.47 
1938-47 


800 
700 


1,700 
2,200 


: 6, 500 
7,100 


34,800 
30,800 


: 2,200 
2, 600 


24,500 
2l+,200 


70,500 
67, 600 


27,100 
21,40(M 


Annual 


















1938 
1939 
1940 
191*1 

1942 
1943 
1944 
191+5 
19^6 
19^7 


500 
200 
800 
700 
800 
600 
1,000 

500 
700 

1,000 


3,100 

i+,900 
2,200 
1 600 
1,600 
1,100 

600 
3,300 

2,1+00 
1,200 


: 11,000 
: 8,800 
8,800 
1+ 1+00 
. 5^300 
7,000 
5,300 
6,600 
7,700 
6,000 


1+1+, 000 
15,000 
28, 600 

ll+, 500 
21, 1+0.0 
22, 700 
50,600 

33,000 

46,200 


3,500 
: 7, 000 
2,200 
200 
2,000 
2,100 
1,700 
2,300 
3,700 
1,100 


2l+, 000 
20,000 
2k, 700 
2l+, 200 
27,000 
29,000 
20,900 
26,1+00 
24,200 
22,000 


86, 100 
55,900 
67,300 
6? 000 
51,200 
61,200 
52,200 
89, 700 
71,700 
77,500 


15,00« 
21,60(8 
12,00J| 
6 000 I 

23' 800 1 
17,5001 

24, ood| 
27,200 1 
37,80<| 
29,200 


1948 1/ : 
191+9 1/ ■ 


1,100; 
300 : 


3,300 
2,200 


7,700 
8,200 


18,700 
18, 000 


2, 900 
3,500 


2/21,000' 
25,300, 


2/54,700 
57,500 


29,6(X 

3/1 



1/ Preliminary. 
2/ Revised. 

3/ California estimate not yet available. June 1 percentage of full crop was 74$ 
compared with 60$ a year ago. Trade sources indicate a record or near record crop 
may he expected. 

Office of Foreign Agricultural Relations. Prepared or estimated on the basis of 
official statistics of foreign governments, reports of U.S. Foreign Service off iced 
results of office research, and other information. 



July 11, l$k? 



Foreign. Crops and Markets 



26 



The principal European buyers of almonds were the United 
Kingdom, France, Belgium/ and the 'Scandinavian countries. India 
was a good market during' most of the " season. United States foreign 
purchases during the season probably will fall below that of 19^7-48 
when 6,135 tons of shelled almonds were imported for consumption. 
.United States imports for consumption to the end of April 19^9 
totalled ^,6ll tons and May declared exports were only 30 tons. 
Italy was the principal supplier of shelled almonds to the United 
States as has been the case since the 19^6-Vf season. United States 
importers have been . out of the Spanish .market since last fall when 
countervailing duties were levied on Spanish almonds. United States 
imports for the past 2 years have been largely small bar size and 
specialty almonds. 

The outlook for the 19^9-50 marketing season in the Mediter- 
ranean countries is a little obscure at this time. While in some 
exporting countries a certain amount of early season optimism pre- 
vails for the new season, there are still some major obstacles to 
a return to a normal prewar export movement. Germany, traditional- 
ly Europe's major consumer of almonds, is still out of the market. 
A small start has been made to revive this trade, primarily due to 
the efforts of energetic Italian exporters. If this market were 
open, half of the visible Italian 19^9-50 supply would be taken by 
Germany, thereby reducing the selling pressure in all of the pro- 
ducing countries. 

The various trade agreements put into operation or presently 
being negotiated by European countries are expected to facilitate 
the export movement' of almonds and other nuts in that part of the 
world. The British Government action placing Mediterranean nuts 
on open general license has been a boon to countries having diffi- 
culty moving exportable surpluses. This is expected to be a big 
help during the new season. 



On the other side of this picture early season reports indicate 
that a very large Turkish filbert crop is expected with a price 
structure that should be very attractive to financially weak European 
countries and bargain-hunting buyers in other parts of the world. 
The early season estimates from trade sources in the United States 
indicate record or near -record crops of almonds, filberts, and 
walnuts. There is a slowing down of consumers' purchases, according 
to the trade. On the basis of the indicated supply of United States 
grown nuts, it appears that United States imports of the types grown 
in this country during the 19^9-50 season will be smaller than during 
the season now closing. 



27 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 59, No. 2 



UNITED STATES: Imports for consumption of shelled and unshelled 
almonds, from specified countries, 194748, with comparisons. 



Season, September through August 



Year 


French 
Morocco 


Italy 


Portugal 


Spain 


Other 
countries 


Total 




Short 


Short 


Short 


Short 


Short 


Short 




tons 


• tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


Shelled: 














Average : 














lQk3/kk - 19^7 A 8 

1938/39 - 1947A8 


21 
16 


1,5^8 
870 


692 
497 


^,977 
2,577 


52 
172 


: 7,290 
^,132 


Annual : 














1943-44 
191+ 445 
1945-46 
194647 
1947-48 
194849 1/ 


0 
15 

28 

34 

27 
0 


0 
0 

1,503 
2,054 
4,179 
4,172 


- 

1,271 
1,218 

688 
187 
98 
137 


6,930 
8,061 
7,l4o 

950 
1,805 

255 


53 
31 
73 
76 
26 
1+7 


8,254 
9,325 
9,437 
3,301 
6,135 
4,611 


Unshelled 














Average : 














1943/44 - l9>+7 A8 
1933/39 - 19^7A8 


0 
0 


3 

2 


5 
3 


201 
100 


2 
1 


211 

106 


Annual : 














I94I- 4.5 

1914.5-1+6 

191+647 ' 
191+7 -.1+3 

191+849 1/ 


0 
0 
0 

0 

0 
0 


0 
0 
0 

6 
9 

• 1 


14 
11 

0 
0 
0 
0 


425 
170 
263 
145 
0 
0 


0 
0 

5 
6 

2/ 
1 


439 
181 
268 
157 

i 
a 



l/3 months, September through April, 19^9. 
2/ Less than one -half ton. 



Compiled from official records of the Bureau of the Census. 



June 11, 19^9 



Foreign Crops and Market: 



28 



WORLD OUTPUT OF DAIRY PRODUCTS, FIRST QUARTER 19^9 

Production of manufactured dairy products in most of the major 
producing countries in the first quarter of 19^9 was veil above that for 
the same quarter a year earlier and thus continues the upward swing "begun 
in the last quarter of 19^8. The larger output of dairy products 
reflects the increase of milk production which occurred during the same 
period, most of which "was diverted to manufacturing uses. As a result, 
cheese, dried milk and "butter production increased 26, 20 and 1'+ per- 
cent, respectively, while evaporated and condensed milk was the only 
product that dropped "below the first quarter production of 19^8. 

The increase in production is attributed to a much improved feed 
situation and in some instances to an increase in the number of milk 
cows in many of the principal milk producing countries. Larger supplies 
of milk in many countries made it possible to relax or remove restrictions 
on utilization, permitting freer diversion of milk to those products 
which would bring the greatest monetary return. 

Although milk cow numbers in Canada and the United States decreased, 
the production of milk and dairy products increased because of the 
favorable domestic feed situation. Australian and New Zealand production 
also reflected improved pasture for dairy herds, but production in the 
union of South Africa is somewhat lower than normal, owing to the dry 
weather early in the year. In Europe, however, the increase in numbers 
and the larger quantity of indigenous and imported feed supplies have 
materially increased production in most of the dairy products. 

Substantial increases in butter production occurred in the major 
producing or reporting countries, with the exception of Switzerland 
and the Union of South Africa. Butter production in Switzerland, 
decreased 15 percent as a result of a bonus being paid for milk used 
in processing cheese. In the Union of South Africa the butter output 
reflected the general decrease in milk production. 

Output of butter in Denmark was 21 percent larger than a year ago, 
reflecting an improvement in milk production which occurred in the first 
3 months of this year. In the Netherlands, an increase of 52 percent 
in milk deliveries to plants resulted in a 26 percent rise in the amount 
of butter produced in the same period. 

The butter production in Ireland, in the January -March quarter, 
was 52 percent above that of 19^8. This permitted a sizable increase 
in the domestic rations, and provided larger quantities for export. The 
output of milk in the United Kingdom during the first quarter of 19^9 
wa.s considerably greater than that of a year earlier. The increase in 
production provided sufficient amounts of fluid milk for unrationed 
market demands, and permitted an increase in butter production well 
above that of 19^8. Last year smaller amounts of milk were used in 
fluid form because of ration restrictions. 



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jo 




Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 59, No. 2 



Largely as a result of the recovery from unfavorable producing 
conditions in the principal dairy areas in Australia, during the opening 
months of the current year, butter production in that country was main- 
tained at a level comparable to 1948. In New Zealand, pastures were 
good throughout the quarter under consideration and butter -gradings for 
export increased 17 percent. This was partly due to continued butter 
rationing needed to maintain current exports at a high level. 

Canadian milk production in the first quarter of 1949 showed little 
change from that of a year ago, but butter output in the same quarter 
was approximately 6 percent larger. During this same period 11 million 
pounds of margarine were produced compared to none a year earlier. In 
the United States an increase of 20 percent in the production of butter 
is attributed to larger milk production and a lessening of the demand for 
whole milk especially by condenser ies. 

Cheese production in the first quarter of 1949 showed the largest 
increase of any manufactured dairy product. In Switzerland the output 
of cheese, in this period, was 21 percent above that of a year ago. This 
3a?:n was achieved at the expense of butter production in anticipation 
of re -entrance by the Swiss into some of their prewar export markets. 
Larger quantities of cheese were manufactured in Denmark and the 
Netherlands, as conditions for production in both countries were much 
more favorable in the initial quarter of the current year than in the 
same quarter of 1948. This continues the general upward trend in Danish 
cheese output for the fifth consecutive year. Cheese output in the 
United Kingdom also showed a marked rise in this period. The Australian 
cheese output showed an increase of 8 percent in the first quarter of 
1949 over the first quarter of the preceding year. This was due primarily 
to the increased milk production in March when the output was larger than 
that of any corresponding month in recent years. While data for total 
cheese manufactured in New Zealand are not available, it is indicated 
that production will be well above 1948. Cheese -gradings for export in 
the first 3 months of 1949 was 12 percent larger than in the correspond- 
ing period a year ago. 

Production of cheese in the United States, for January through 
March, was approximately 22 percent larger than in the same period of 
1948 and was the largest ever attained for that quarter. Canadian cheese 
production declined 26 percent as a result of larger quantities of milk 
being diverted to other uses, particularly to butter. However, cheese 
production is expected to increase and probably attain a higher level 
than last year, 

Evaporated and con dense d milk was the only manufactured dairy 
product whose output declined during the first quarter of 1949. 
While Canada, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands increased their 
manufacture of these products in this quarter, their output is small 
compared with the United States where production wa3 14 percent below 



July 11, 19^9 



Foreign Crops and Market 



32 



that of 19^3. This decrease occurred in evaporated milk which is 
processed on a much larger scale than condensed milk. In the first 
quarter of evaporated milk production in this country dropped about 
17 percent "below the same quarter of last year. The production of 
evaporated and condensed milk in Australia, the only other country report- 
ing, was down 20 percent in the first 3 months of 19^9 as compared with 
the corresponding 3 months of 19^8. 

Dried milk production in the first quarter of 19 } +9 showed an increase 
over the corresponding period of 19^3. Both the United States and Canada, 
two of the major producers of dried milk products, experienced a decrease 
in the production of dried whole milk, but substantially accelerated the 
output of dry non-fat milk. The net increase in dried milk products for 
these countries was 32 percent and hi percent, respectively, in the first 
quarter of 19^9 compared with January -March, 19^8. 

The United States production increase in dry non-fat milk of ho per- 
cent is largely the result of increased milk production, diversion of 
milk from evaporated and dried whole milk to butter production combined 
with continued Government purchases for export and price support. The 
Netherlands and Australia were the only other countries to show an in- 
crease in production of dried milk in the first quarter of 19^9. Output 
in the United Kingdom, on the other hand, was only ^7 percent of a year 
ago. ' 

Current Conditions Abroad 

Canada: Livestock came through the winter in good condition. 
Pasture growth is good. Fanners are well supplied with feeds. 

Cuba ; In May, seasonal rainfall over most of the Island improved 
pastures rapidly, causing a marked increase in milk production, and 
giving impetus to the output of canned milk and other dairy products. 

Irelan d; Weather and pasture conditions are favorable. Dairy out- 
put shows improvement. 

United Kingdom ; Conditions for milk production continue favorable. 
Pastures have developed as a result of the mild weather and supplies of 
fodder and other feeds are adequate. 

The Netherlands ; Dairy cattle came through the comparatively mild 
winter in excellent condition. Feeds are plentiful. 

Denmark ; Warm weather and ample rainfall in May provided good grow- 
ing conditions. Pastures are excellent. 

France ; Dairy production, aided by timely spring rains which have 
eased the threat of drought, has been increasing seasonally. Since the 
middle of May, production of dairy products has been adequate to meet 
practically all current domestic requirements. 



(Continued on Page hi) 



33 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 59, No. 2 



COMMODITY DEVELOPMENTS 



FATS AND OILS 

V~. 3. EXPORTS OF SPECIFIED 
FATS, OILS, AND OILSEEDS 

The following table shows United States exports of specified fats, oils, and 
oilseeds during January-May 1949 with comparisons: 



UNITED STATES: Exports of specified fats, oils, and oilseeds, 
January-May 1949 with comparisons 



Commodity 




Unit 


Average 


: 1947 ' 


1948 1/ 


January -May 






1948 1/ 


1949 1/ 


Soybeans . . , 


•I 


000 


bu 


2/ 4,793 


2,505 


6,497 


2,100 


12,597 


Soybean oil 
















Refined 


•1, 


UUU 


IDS. 


3/6,467 


38,883 


41,266 


22,866 


91 550 


Crude , , 








68,395 


41,769 




84 QQ? 
o*+, yjc 


Coconut oil 




» 


ii 












Refined 




ii 




3,789 


: 5,491 


9,273 


6,543 


1,878 




• 


it 




10,442 


: 52,427 


9,820 


5,953 


3,365 


Cottonseed oil 


















Refined . . c ....... . 






ti 


Km 


10,977 


22,627 


19,146 


45,508 










1,515 


: 901 


10, 094 


2,176 


18,602 




•1. 


000 


bu. 


3/ 


: 16 


1,650 


15 


2,903 




:1, 


000 


lbs. 


1,280 


: 9,855 


29,636 


14,352 


2,455 


Peanuts 


















Shelled 








3/[ 452 


212.253 


458,655 


223,794 


210,300 










18,681 


io,594 


3,827 


3,724 


Peanut oil, refined. . 








4/ 325 


1,579 


685 


627 


12, 082 










2,111 
165,636 


3,594 


3,522 
271,835 


1,404 


2,107 










380,735 


133,290 


287,527 










180 


19,954 


3,^08 


2,361 


990 


Tallow 














Edible 








3/ ( ( l,65l 


601 


1,377 


1,193 


11,416 


Inedible 








54,553 


67,995 


13,039 


158,044 



l/ Preliminary^ 2/ Average of less than 5 years. 3/ Not separately classified in 
Foreign Commerce and Navigation. 4/ 1939 only. 



Compiled from official sources. 

ITALIAN OILSEED 
PRODUCTION DOWN 

Italy's 1949 oilseed production (exclusive of olives) may not exceed 50,000 
short tons, compared with almost 66,000 in 1948 and the all-time peak of 75,000 
reached in 1947. This is the result of acreage reductions which were in ac- 
cordance with Italy's long-term program for decreased oilseed production. 



July 11, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



34 



ITALY: Oilseed production, I949 
with comparisons 



Oilseed 


: Average 
1935-39 


19^7 


igkQ 


1949 1 / 




amort; tons 


> Short tons 


Short tons 


Short tons 


Rapeseed 

Peanuts 

Sunflower seed 

Seaaiao seed 

Soybeans , 

Castor beans 

Flaxseed 

Heap seed , 

Cobtonseod 


:2/ 2,133 
■£/ i,6U2 
i27 25 
2/ hhk 
1/ 16 
2/ 3,597 
5,669 
3,W 
9,370 


: 22,953 
7,935 
12,350 

73* - 
k,k9k 

4, 683 
12,719 
2,989 
5,678 


! 23,469 
7,166 
8,062 
478 
3,201 

3,213 
13,220 
2,714 

4,370 


16,535 
4,409 
6,614 
551 
3,307 
3,307 

2/ 



l/ Preliminary. 2/ Average of less than 2 years. 3/ Wot available. 



American Embassy, Rome. 

Oilseeds provide only a 3tnall proportion of the vegetable oils con- 
sumed in Italy, olives being by far the most important source. Seeds most 
commonly grown for oil are rapeseed, peanuts, sunflower seed, sesame seed, 
soybeans, and castor beans. In addition oilseeds are obtained from the 
flax, hemp and cotton fiber plants. Moreover, a variety of oiibearing ma- 
terials, which are grown principally for other purposes, are also pressed 
for oil whenever profitable. For example, there Is regular pressing of 
grape seed, corn, rice, tobacco seed, poppy seed, tomato seed, and nuts, 
particularly when the prices of the latter are low and oil prices are high. 

In Italy oilseed production and foreign trade are closely associated 
with olive oil production. As a direct consequence of the large olive crop 
in I947 and improved world availabilities, oilseed plantings were decreased 
in I94O. A very poor olive crop in 1948 and the decreased domestic oilseed 
production necessitated la.rge imports of oilseed3. In IQkd imports of oil- 
seeds totaled over 48,300 tons, nearly twice as much as in 1947 but only 
one -fourth of prewar. Imports have been an important factor this year in 
preventing substantial increases in prices of edible oils. As imports 
have mounted, prices have continued to decline. Exports of oilseeds have 
been negligible. 

URUGUAY HARVESTS RECORD 
SUNFLOWER , PEAIIUT CROPS 

Uruguay's 1949 sunflower and peanut crops are the largest on record, 
according to official figures ,Just released. Over 66,500 short tons of 
sunflower seed were harvested from 280,000 acres (planted), compared with 
41,200 tons (revised) from 206,000 acres in I948 and 2,590 tons from 11,250 
acres prewar . 



35 



Foreign. Crops and Markers 



•Vol.. 59, No. 2 



Peanut production was almost 11,500 tons from 1+3,000 acres (planted) 
as against the revised figures of .10,600 tons and 34,400 acres a year 
ago and the prewar average of I,l80 tons and 4,740 acres. 

'Notice was given June 14 by the Controller of Exports and Imports 
of tile opening of the export quota to the amount of 4,400 tons of 
peanut oil and/or ' sunflower seed oil, or the equivalent in seeds (up 
to 11,000 tons). • ; 

1 TOBACCO 

NEW ZEALAND TOBACCO PRODUCTION AND . 
CONSUMPTION AT EEC'OPD LEVEL 

New Zealand's production of leaf tobacco and consumption of to- 
bacco products reached record levels in 1948, according to the American 
Embassy in "Wellington. Lmports of leaf, however, have declined somewhat 
in recent years. 

The country's 1948-49 leaf production, composed principally of 
flue-cured and light air -cured types, has "been forecast at 5,615,000 
pounds from 4,406 acres, as compared with 4,771,000 pounds from 4,3ol 
acres in 1947-48 and an annual average of 3,668,000 pounds from 3,392 
acres during the 5-year period, 1942-43 through 1946-47. The 1948-49 
yield per acre of 1,274 pounds is 17 percent a"bovo the 1947-48 yield 
of 1,093 pounds and 18 percent above the 1942-43 through 1946-47 average 
of l,08l pounds per acre. 

Imports of leaf into New Zealand during 1948, totaled 4,346,000 
pounds, as compared with 4,651,000 pounds in 1947 and a 1942-46 annual 
average of 5,024,000 pounds, Elue-curod leaf from the United States 
accounts for most of the country's unmanufactured tobacco imports. In 
1948 exports of this type from the United States to Now Zealand totaled 
3,327,000 pounds. 

Leaf released to manufacturers from bonded warehouses in 1943 
totaled 8,306,000 pounds, composed of about 3,251,000 pounds of domestic 
leaf and 5,055,000 pounds pounds of imported loaf. This is the high- 
est rate of leaf consumption on record and is 4 percent greater than 
the 7,985,000 pounds released to manufacturers in 1947 and 44 percent 
above the 5,772,000 pounds released in 1946. Domestic loaf accounted 
for 39 percent of total consumption in 1948, as compared with 38 percent 
in 1947 and 49 percent in 1946. 

SOUTHERN RHODESIA'S TOBACCO PRODUCTION 
AMD EXPORTS TREBLE PREWAR 

Southern Rhodesia's 1948-49 production and 1948 oxports of leaf 
tobacco were more than treble the prewar level, according to the 
American Embassy in Pretoria. 



July 11, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



36 



The country's 1948-40 tobacco crop is officially estimated at 78.8 
million poxsnds from 136,220 acres, as compared with 77.9 million pounds 
from 119,971 acres in 1947-43 and the prewar, 1935-36 through 1939-^0, 
annual average of 26.1 million pounds from 51,447 acres. The 1948-49 
yield per acre of 579 pounds was IT percent below the 1947-48 yield of 
649 pounds 3 but 14 percent above the prewar, 1935-36 through 1939-^°, 
average of 507 pounds per acre. The decline in yield in 1948-49 was 
due primarily to a prolonged drought during the growing season. 

Flue -cured leaf accounted for 96 percent of the total production 
in 1943-49, as compared with 97 percent in 1947-48 and 94 percent in the 
1935-36 through 1939-40 period. Production of this type in 1948-40 to- 
taled 75 -5 million pounds from 128,500 acres. In addition to flue-cured 
leaf, Southern K nodes ia in 1948-49, produced 2.5 million pounds of .Turkish 
and 800 thousand pounds of dark fire -cured leaf. 

Leaf exports in 1948 totaled 67.7 million pounds, as compared with 
46.7 million pounds in 1947 and an annual average of I9.2 million pounds 
in the prewar, 1935-39, period. The United Kingdom took 44.2 million 
pounds, or 65 percent of Southern Rhodesia's total leaf exports in 1948. 
This compares with 28.1 million pounds, or 60 percent in 1947 and 15.3 
million pounds, or 80 percent in tho 1935-39 period. Australia, the 
second most important outlet for Southern Rhodesia's leaf in 1948, took 
6.4 million pounds, or 9 percent in 1-948, as compared with 3*1 million 
pounds, or 7 percent in 1947* Other countries taking substantial quan- 
tities of leaf in 1948 include the Union of South Africa, Egypt, the 
Netherlands, Denmark, Belgium and the United States. 

SOUTHERN RHODESIA: Exports of leaf tobacco, 1948 
with comparisons 



Country cf Destination 


Average 
• 1935-39 


1947 


1948 




1,000 ■ 

pounds 


1,000 

pounds 


1,000 
pounds 


United Kingdom 

Union of South Africa ' • 

Australia 

Netherlands 

Egypt 

United States 

Denmark 

Belgium 

Other Countries 


15,273 
2,497 

1/ ' 
' "35 • 

y 

845 : 


28,126" 
4,906 
3,081 
873 
3,256 
1,716 
453 
740 
3,506 


44.162 
1,793 
6,377 
2,174 
5,021 

923 
2,497 

310 
4,4o4 


Total 


19 , 166 ; 


46,657 


67,661 



l/ If any, included in "Other countries". 



Official and Consular Reports. 



37 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 59, No. 2 



Flue-cured exports in 19^8 totaled 6k. 0 million pounds, or 95 per- 
cent of the country's total leaf exports. This compares with *2.5 
million pounds, or 91 percent in 19*7 and the prewar annual average of 
about I7.9 million pounds, or 9* percent. In addition to flue-cured 
leaf, Southern Rhodesia in 19*8, exported 3.2 million pounds of Turkish 
and about 400 thousand pounds of dark fire -cured leaf. 



TROPICAL PRODUCTS 



ANGOLA'S 19*8 COFFEE 
EXPORTS AT RECORD HIGH 



In 19*8, Angola's exports of coffee reached an all-time high of 
890,000 hags, 15 percent above the previous peak of 775,000 hags in 19*6, 
and more than 3 times as large as the annual average prewar, 1935-39, 
exports of 268,000 hags, according to the American Consulate in Luanda. 
Angola exported 73^,000 hags of coffee in 19*7- 

The Netherlands was Angola's leading market, taking 219,000 hags of 
coffee in I9I+8. It was followed hy Portugal with 213,000 hags, the United 
States with 189,000 hags, and Belgium-Luxembourg with 115,000 hags. One 
noticeable feature in Angola's coffee trade was the increase in exports 
to Germany from about 130 bags in 19*7 to nearly 32,000 bags in 19*8. 



ANGOLA: Exports of green coffee in 19*8, 
with comparisons. 



Destination 



Average 
1935-39 



19*6 



19*7 



19*8 1/ 



1,000 



Belgium- Luxembourg ; 2/ 

Netherlands .■ : 26 

Portugal : 190 

United States : 29 

Other ; 23 

Total ; 268 

1/ Preliminary. 

2/ Not available. Included in Other, 



1,000 



26 
96 
139 
360 

15* 



775 



1,000 



lk9 
15* 
136 
21* 
81 



73* 



1,000 
bags 

115 
219 
213 
I89 
15* 



Esjtatisticado Commercio Da Navegacao and U. S. Foreign Service reports. 



Angola's coffee plantations cover approximately 1,235,000 acres and 
are divided among kkk fazendas (farms) belonging to 331 different producers, 
These properties represent the greatest single investment of Portuguese 
and foreign capital in the Colony. It is estimated that about 125 million 
coffee trees are now planted in Angola. 



July 11, 19^9 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



38 



Much credit for the development of coffee plantations in Angola 
is due to the efforts of the Junta de Exportacao do Cafe Colonial 
created in. 1939- This organization has made great progress in de- 
veloping CTiltivation through technical services to the planters, es- 
tablishment of experimental stations, improvement in internal and 
maritime transport, and construction of storage warehouses. Through 
rigid classification regulations issued early in 19^+5, the Junta has 
taken great pains to insure that the quality of exports meet required 
international standards. 



MOZAMBIQUE'S TEA PRODUCTION 
ANT) F.XF0RTS LARGER 

Mozambique's 19^9 tea production is now estimated at about k.k 
million pounds, an increase of 10 percent over the 19^-3 crop of slight- 
ly less than k million pounds, according to the American Consulate Gen- 
eral in Lourencc Marques . 



Exports of tea in 19^8 amounted to 3.3 million pounds, the high- 
est in the Colony's history, comparing with l.k million pounds in I9U7 
and an annual average of 800 thousand pounds in the prewar period 1935- 
39- Domestic consumption of tea in Mozambique is currently estimated 
at JOO thousand pounds annually. 



probably the most notable development in Mozambique's tea trade 
was the export of 2 million pounds of tea to the United States in 19^8. 
Thi3 is the first time that United States importers ever purchased a 
substantial quantity of tea from Mozambique. During the first *f months 
of 19^9, Mozambique producers shipped 1.9 million pounds of tea to the 
United States, and they expect to ship at least 500,000 thousand pounds 
more by the end of the year. The Union of South Africa and Portugal 
are the other important markets for Mozambique's tea exports. 



COTTON AND OTHER FIBER 

ITALIAN COTTON MILLS 
REDUCING OPERATIONS 

The Italian cotton industry is gradually reducing output of woven 
goods, due to declining sales and increasing inventories. This trend is 
expected to continue over the next 6 months. This situation was not 
reflected, however, in the April yarn production figures but the spin- 
ning mills can be expected to feel the decline in weaving fairly soon. 
Preliminary reports of the Ministry of Labor field offices indicate that 
many mills had started reducing operations in June. Trade sources are 
forecasting a level of activity in the cotton industry during the summer 
months significantly lower than in 191*7 and I9I+8 if the present situation 
continues . 



39 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



Vol. 59, No. 2 



Yarn sales contracts in the domestic market have been 
3teadily declining over the past few months. Sales contracts 
in April in the domestic market were reported to have de- 
clined to 3o percent of the January 19^9 level. Activity 
in the cotton-spinning industry has been maintained largely 
on the strength of the export market for yarns. Cotton yarn 
exports in l$k8 were 50 percent higher than in 1933, while 
exports of finished manufacturers were only one -third the 
prewar level. 



The drop in activity of the weaving section is particu- 
larly diie to the difficulty of selling woven textiles abroad. 
Competition is increasing and Italian producers are having 
increasing difficulties in meeting competitive, prices of other 
exporting countries. The Italians assert that increasing 
labor costs make it impossible to reduce prices. Also, ac- 
cording to a recent study prepared by the Ministry of Labor 
and Commerce, one of the chief problems of the cotton textile 
industry is the need for modernization of its plants in order 
to increase production efficiency and lower costs. 



Italy has lost many of its prewar markets. These in- 
cluded not only former colonial markets but also a number of 
other importers of Italian textiles that have increased do- 
mestic production of fabrics and can now fill most of their 
own needs. Many of these countries are buying more yarn to 
increase production in their own weaving establishments and 
importing less cloth* The loss of these markets is of extra- 
ordinary importance to the Italian cotton industry which in 
prewar years normally exported 35 to ^0 percent of its cotton' 
textile production. 

With unemployment, Italy is obliged to export as much 
labor value as is possible. In the textile industry, however, 
an increasing quantity of yarn is exported that requires much 
less labor to manufacture than cloth. If yarns continue to 
account for the larger share of textile exports, the industry 
necessarily will contribute le3s foreign exchange income to 
the Italian economy than in the past. 



July 11, 1949 



Foreign Crops and Markets 



COTTON-PRICE quotations 
ON FOREIGN MARKETS 



The following table shows certain cotton-price quotations on foreign markets 
converted at current rates of exchange. 



COTTON: Spot prices in certain foreign markets, and the 
U.S. gulf -port average 



Market location, 
kind, and quality 


' Date 
! 19^9 


; Unit of 
" weight 


; Unit of 
| curi'ency 


. Price in 
: foreign 
: currency 


Equivalent 
:U.S. cents 
:per pound 


Alexandria 




rKantar 








Aabiaouni, Good 


: 7-7 


: 99.05 lbs. 

! » 


iTallari 


: 44.45 
: 41.70 
1 ^ not 
(not 

: 620.00 
65c 00 


: 37.07 
: 34.78 

:quoted) 

: 23.86 
25.01 


Ashmouni, F.G.F. ...... , .. 

Karnak, Good t 




Tfaynnlr Ti 1 CI TT 




,, 


[ „ 


Bombay 




:Candy 
: 78^ lbs. 


: Rupee 
, ti 


Broach Fine 


tt 


Karachi 




;Maund 




4F Punjab, S.G,, Fine 


7 6 


• 82.28 lbs. 


„ 


87.00 
93.00 
: 93.00 


31.90 
34.10 
' 34.10 


289F Sind, S.G. , Fine 


t! 




289F Punjab, S.G. , Fine .... 
Buenos Aires 


t! 


, 11 

-Metric ton 






7-7 


2204.6 lbs. 


•Peso 


'1/4000.00 

335.00 

427.00 


54.03 

32,06 
40.87 


Lima 


7 6 
it 


Sp. quintal 
101, k lbs. 


Sol 


Pima, Type 1 .............. 


ti 


Recife 




Arroba 




Mat a, Type k 

Sertao, Type ^ 


7-7 
11 


33c 07 lbs. 

ti 


Cruzeiro 


. 200.00 
180.00 


32.90 

29,61 


Sao Paulo ; 










it ■ 




it 


195.00 : 
197.00 : 


32.08 
22,4-6 


Torre on : 
Middling, 15/16" . , . : 


» 


Sp. quintal : 
101 , h lbs. : 


Peso 


Houston -Galveston -New : 




Orleans av, Mid. 15/16" 


"ti- 


Pound : 


Cent ; 


XXXXX : 


31.90 







Quotations of foreign markets reported by cable fromU.S, Foreign Service posts 
abroad. U.S. quotations from designated spot markets. 
1/ Nominal . 



Foreign'* Crop's and i,ferkets Vol. 59* No. 2' 

WORLD OUTPUT OF DAIRY PRODUCTS; (Continued from page 32) 



Switzerland ; Rainfall in April and May, after a dry early spring, 
resulted in a sharp revival of pasture growth. 

Australia: The outlook for dairy production is generally good. 
Dairy cattle are slightly more rumor cue. . and . fa.ee the winter in good 
condition, with feed available for at least several months* 



New Zealand; Agricultural conditions continue generally satisfactory* 



L A 3 




N E 1 


( S 





(Continued from Pare 2J) 



It is reported that the Uruguayan commitments under the Eighth 
British Meat Contract have boon advised that future shipments will be 
at prices determined 'under the Ninth Contract to be negotiated. 



Further cubs in British. import s of United States farm products 
seem likely as result of a British Government "standstill" directive 
under which further purchases in the dollar area will be permitted enly 
where. a clear case of urgent national interest is established. Existing 
contracts and commitments for dollar purchases will remain in force. 

This action with respect to imports from the .United States, Canada 
and other dollar countries was announced in the House of Commons, July 6, 
by Sir Stafford Cripps, Britain's Chancellor of the Exchequer • He 
reported that dollar and gold reserves in. the sterling area had declined 
to $l,62l>, 000,000, a drop of $260,000,000 in 3 months. Formerly a reserve 
of $2,000,000,000 had been considered necessary., 

Cripps said that new import programs were being considered and 
_thvt these should be completed in September. 

"Unless the sterling area succeeds in restoring the volume of its 
sales to the dollar area," he said, "these restrictions upon dollar 
expenditures will have to be continued." 

The Chancellor did not indicate in Commons which specific 
agricultural products would be most great].;/ affected by the restriction 
of dollar purchases. 



July 11, 19^4-9 Foreign Crops and Markets l\2 

The British Parliament has passed the Agricul tural Marketing Act 
of 1949* amending Acts of 1931 ®- n & The new Act has to do with 

membership of the Marketing 3oards and the authority of the Boards 
particularly with respect to buying, grading, packing, storage, pro- 
cessing, and sale, including prices, of agricultural commodities. 

Henceforth not less than two and not more than one-fifth of total 
membership of such boards shall be persons appointed by the Minister 
of Agriculture and Fisheries, the remainder being drawn from producers. 

If practices of a board result in limiting the quantity of products 
made available for the public's use or in regulating the price of products 
and the results are contrary to the public interest, the Minister may 
d?rect a board to take steps for the purpose of preventing or mitigating 
damage to the public interest, and it shall be the duty of the board to 
comply with his directions.